Monkeypox virus like other viruses causes an infectious disease called monkeypox also known as Mpox.
What does Monkeypox look like? Symptoms of Mpox
The signs and symptoms of monkeypox differ in different periods depending upon gender, age etc. but common symptoms are:
In monkeypox
• There are painful skin rashes
• Fever (due to infection)
• Enlargement of lymph nodes(due to infection)
• Chills
• Headache
• Muscle pain
What causes monkeypox?
Monkeypox virus(MPXV), a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus like the smallpox virus is the cause of Mpox. Monkeypox virus is a double-stranded DNA virus. its two types are known:
Type one -which arose in Central Africa
Type two-which arose in West Africa

Outbreak of monkeypox virus

The first worldwide outbreak of the monkeypox virus appeared in 2022 and the condition was officially declared an emergency as it became prevalent in the world outside Africa.

When was the first case of monkeypox reported?
WHO reported that the first case of Mpox was reported in Congo in 1970. The patient was a nine-month-old boy, stated WHO.

Transmission of monkeypox virus
There are many ways of transmission of this virus but common ways which spread the virus from one person to the other are:
• Sexual transmission: This is one of the sexually transmitted diseases, especially in anal sex ( sex between two men).
• Men-to-men transmission through touching, kissing
• Animal-to-men transmission while cooking
• Vertical transmission: from mother to her unborn child
• Contaminated material can also transmit the virus
• Direct contact with the infectious scabs or other bodily secretions for example saliva, and respiratory secretions can spread the virus from one person to another
What laboratory tests are performed to detect the virus?
Two types of polymerase chain reactions i.e. Conventional PCR and real-time PCR are used as diagnostic tests.

How the monkeypox virus causes Mpox?

The virus enters the body through different routes for example broken skin or other routes that interfere with the normal metabolism of the cells causing viral infection and symptoms for example fever fatigue etc.

Rashes in Mpox
All the patients infected by the monkeypox virus do not present with skim this. Some of them may not have skin rashes but present with other symptoms like flu, fatigue etc. Others may even not have these symptoms.
The rashes first appear as red bulges which are painful, later turning into blisters filled with pus followed by their falling off in a period of one to four weeks. The blisters ate mainly found on the face and mouth although may be present on the vagina and anus.

When was the first case of Mpox reported in Pakistan?
In April 2023 the first case of Mpox was reported in Pakistan. The patient was a 40-year-old man who returned from Saudi Arabia.

Is the monkeypox virus dangerous? Is Mpox curable?
Mpox is curable in most persons but it can cause severe symptoms in others.
Death rate
The mortality rate in patients suffering from Mpox is low with most deaths occurring in the patients who are immunocompromised.

Some interesting facts about the monkeypox virus
• Rare disease
• Rarely fatal
• Caused by a smallpox-like virus
• Doesn’t spread readily
• The mortality rate due to infection of this virus is low.

Vaccination against the monkeypox virus

Due to the spread of the monkeypox virus in more than 80 countries. Mpox has been declared a medical emergency. The vaccine against the orthopoxvirus causing Mpox consists of antibodies against antigens of the virus.
How effective monkeypox vaccine is?
Vaccines cannot be regarded as agents fully eradicating the disease. Instead, they can lessen the severity of the disease. Also, the people who are vaccinated against the monkeypox virus have fewer chances to get affected by the virus than those who are not vaccinated.